Map was generated from the coastline data set (except for other sets of line data such as political boundaries or rivers) of "World Data Bank II" with the addition of "World Vector Shoreline" (for the boundaries between Weddell Sea and Filchner Ice Shelf and between the same and Ronne Ice Shelf) retrieved from Online Coastline Extractor[NGDC] provided by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Retrieved data set was processed with my own Java program and therefore no other resources such as data extracting software provided by NGDC were utilized. Adopted method is the azimuthal equidistant projection with projection center at the South Pole.
Distribution (Breeding Range):
McDonald Islands: census in the 1980s estimated approximately 100 pairs [Meyer, L. et al. 2000]/[AADC: ASAC 1219 HIMI] but no specific information is available for this small numbers since then. Furthermore, it is not clear how eruptions at McDonald Island since 1992 [AAD: Volcano]/[HIMI] impacts penguin colonies.
Whole of each Island or Islands is enclosed by a line. Enclosing line width is fixed irrespective of size or density of population.
Catard, A. 2001. French Southern Territories. pp.337-347. IN Fishpool, L.D.C. & Evans, M.I. (eds). Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: Priority sites for conservation (BirdLife Conservation Series, 11). Pisces Publications and BirdLife International. Newbury and Cambridge, UK.