Map was generated from the coastline data set (except for other sets of line data such as political boundaries or rivers) of "World Data Bank II" with the addition of "World Vector Shoreline" (for the boundaries between Weddell Sea and Filchner Ice Shelf and between the same and Ronne Ice Shelf) retrieved from Online Coastline Extractor[NGDC] provided by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Retrieved data set was processed with my own Java program and therefore no other resources such as data extracting software provided by NGDC were utilized. Adopted method is the azimuthal equidistant projection with projection center at the South Pole.
Distribution (Breeding Range):
Whole of each Island or Islands is enclosed by a line. Enclosing line width is fixed irrespective of size or density of population.
Two subspecies are sometimes recognized: Southern Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii breeding on Antarctic Peninsula and nearby islands, South Shetland Islands; and South Orkney Islands) and Northern Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua papua breeding on Falkland Islands, South Georgia Island, South Sandwich Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Îles Crozet (Crozet Islands) Îles Kerguelen (Kerguelen Islands), Heard Island and Macquarie Island) [Metcheva, R. et al. 2008]/[Penguin-Pedia].