Map was generated from the coastline data set (except for other sets of line data such as political boundaries or rivers) of "World Data Bank II" with the addition of "World Vector Shoreline" (for the boundaries between Weddell Sea and Filchner Ice Shelf and between the same and Ronne Ice Shelf) retrieved from Online Coastline Extractor[NGDC] provided by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Retrieved data set was processed with my own Java program and therefore no other resources such as data extracting software provided by NGDC were utilized. Adopted method is the azimuthal equidistant projection with projection center at the South Pole.
Distribution (Breeding Range):
Antarctica including Antarctic Peninsula and nearby islands: Each location listed up in "Distribution and abundance of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic penguins" [Wilson, G.J. 1983] is shown by circle, excluding the point of 75°30′S 25°30′W (Halley Bay) which is noted as "No colony here now", and the points of 66°48′S 89°12′E (Gaussberg), 74°45′S 140°40′W (Cruzen Island), 74°17′S 132°30′W (Shepard Island), and 68°45′S 90°40′W (Peter I Island) which recorded almost or more than a half century ago but no other confirmable source is available, with the addition of the points of 66°13′S 51°22′E (Mount Biscoe) [Bassett, J.A. et al. 1990]/[AADC] and 65°51′S 53°48′E (Cape Batterbee) [Cooper, J. et al. 1985]/[AADC].
Bouvetøya (Bouvet Island), which a lot of literatures list up as a breeding site, is excluded since it is reasonable to consider the island is not a breeding site any more for the following reasons:
The census during 1978/1979 season estimated limited numbers only, while breeding was confirmed, in comparison with Macaroni Penguin which was by far the most numerous species and Chinstrap Penguin which showed next largest number.[Haftorn, S. et al 1981]
Scott Island, which Ueda [ペンギン図鑑]/[ペンギン·スタイル] and Fujiwara [ペンギンガイドブック] list up as a breeding site, is excluded since no confirmable primary source is available. Few landings have been made on Scott Island and only following species are observed or supposed to breed at the island: Wilson’s Storm Petrel (Oceanites oceanicus), Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea), Antarctic Prion (Pachyptila desolata), etc. [Harper, P.C. 1972]/[Wilson, K.J. et al. 1996].
Whole of each Island or Islands is enclosed by a line except for Antarctica including Antarctic Peninsula and nearby islands where each location is shown by circle as mentioned above. Radii of the circles and enclosing line width are fixed irrespective of size or density of population.
Note about References
References of Adélie Coast, and western coast of Ross Sea and Ross Island, where a lot of penguins can be confirmed , are omitted in Data.
Huyser, O. 2001. Bouvetøya. pp.113-115. IN Fishpool, L.D.C. & Evans, M.I. (eds). Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: Priority sites for conservation (BirdLife Conservation Series, 11). Pisces Publications and BirdLife International. Newbury and Cambridge, UK.